Comparative Characteristics of Physical, Chemical, and Biochemical Methods for Determining Nitrofuran Metabolites in Food

Olga Ivanova, Alexander Galkin


Background. Nitrofurans belong to a class of synthetic antibiotics, which are widely used in various livestock sectors due to their high effectiveness in control over infectious diseases and as a growth activator. Nitrofurans are rapidly metabolized compounds, but the metabolites of these drugs are able to bind to protein structures and accumulate in the body of animals. Nitrofuran metabolites show carcinogenic properties, therefore it is necessary to control their content in food products of animal origin.

Objective. The aim of the paper is to summarise modern methods for nitrofurans analysis.

Methods. The modern methods of sample preparation of food products of animal origin for extracting nitrofuran metabolites and methods for detecting these analytes are systematized and analyzed.

Results. Modern analysis methods have a sufficient sensitivity level of nitrofurans determination in the form of final products – furaltadone and furazolidone metabolites. There are several methods of detection, among which are chro­matographic methods and enzyme immunoassay.

Conclusions. Analysis of the literature has shown that use of combined techniques combining selective removal of nitrofuran metabolites from the sample matrix and their quantification, allows screening and confirmatory test for the presence of nitrofurans in food and also allows detecting analytes at 1 mg/kg.


Nitrofurans; Sample preparation; Nitrofuran metabolites; Nitrofuran detection methods


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