Tariff Rate for Electrical Thermal Storage for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems
Background. The most efficient use of available electricity capacity during the hours of consumption decline is very important problem in Ukraine. This article provides an analysis of the actual tariff policy and the use of electricity during the hours of the low tariff for heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems.
Objective. The aim of the paper is to analyze the set validity periods of the reduced prices for electrical energy. Priority attention is paid to the tariff policy differences for the cost of electricity in Ukraine and abroad and how these differences affect possible storage system cost and, thus, payback period.
Methods. The general feasibility of using electricity as the heat source is presented, different energy sources as a generator of heat are compared, the possibility of strengthening cooperation between producers and consumers of electricity in order to achieve optimal modes of generation and consumption of heat is stated, the tariff plans for electricity in Ukraine and abroad are provided.
Results. As a result of the work it was made the comparison of tariff policy in Ukraine and three other countries: the UK, Canada and Spain. It is shown that overseas tariff rates are more flexible than in Ukraine, and promotes more effective relationships between the power generating companies and consumers in both economic and technological aspects. It was also shown that additional day charging can significantly reduce a necessary amount of heat storage material as well as the set power of the system.Conclusions. At the current level of technological development, the actual policy for determining electricity tariffs should be based on innovative technologies, for example, on the dynamic determination of the electricity cost. It becomes relevant with the growth of the share of renewable energy sources in general electricity generation.
Full Text:PDF (Українська)
O.V. Lysak, “Impact of storage period on payback period of electrical storage heating systems”, in Proc. III Int. Conf. Energy Management: Current State and Development Trends, May 30–Juny 01, 2016, Kyiv, Ukraine, NTUU KPI, pp. 43–44 (in Ukrainian).
G.B. Paraska and O.A. Mikolyuk, “Efficiency estimation of electric systems heating use”, Enerhetyka: Ekonomika, Tekhnolohiyi, Ekolohiya, no. 42, pp. 73–79, 2015 (in Ukrainian).
Potential for Smart Electric Thermal Storage Contributing to a Low Carbon Energy System [Online]. Available: http://www.dimplex.co.uk/assets/Downloads_PDF/Kema_Report.pdf
S. Wong and J.P. Pinard, “Opportunities for smart electric thermal storage on electric grids with renewable energy”, IEEE Trans. Smart Grid , vol. 8, no. 2, no. 99, pp. 1014–1022. doi: 10.1109/TSG.2016.2526636
Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2016 [Online]. Available: http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/pdf/electricity_generation.pdf
Shifting Demand: Yukon Home Heating Trends [Online]. Available: http://www.energy.gov.yk.ca/pdf/Shifting-Demand-in-Yukon-Heating.pdf
Initial Economic Analysis of Electric Thermal Storage in the Yukon: Draft [Online]. Available: http://www.energy.gov.yk.ca/ pdf/ets_report_mar_2014__phase_draft.pdf
D.Yi. Rosinskiy and M.P. Tymchenko, “Storage heaters for for civil use”, Promyslova Elektroenerhetyka ta Elektrotekhnika, no. 3, pp. 65–70, 2011 (in Ukrainian).
I.A. Krivoshein, Household Electric Heating Appliances and Installations. Moscow, SU: Publ. House MKH RSFSR, 1963 (in Russian).
E. Bates, “Development of transportable thermal-storage space heaters”, in Proc. IEE Part A: Power Engineering, vol. 104, no. 17, pp. 415–423, 1957. doi: 10.1049/pi-a.1957.0108
B.Y. Bedouani et al., “Central electric thermal storage (ETS) feasibility for residential applications: Part 1. Numerical and experimental study”, Int. J. Energy Res., vol. 25, pp. 53–72, 2001. doi: 10.1002/1099-114X(200101)25:1<53::AID-ER610>3.0.CO;2-T
A.Yu. Gilyus, “Prospects of electrical storage heating in Lithuania SSR”, Vodosnabzhenie i Sanitarnaya Tehnika, no. 7, p. 12, 1985 (in Russian).
A.A. Simonov, “Domestic electric heating with heat storage – an important factor in the use of electricity”, Energetika i Elektrificacija, no. 7, pp. 26–30, 1992 (in Russian).
J. Clarke et al., “Performance of actively controlled domestic heat storage devices in a smart grid”, in Proc. IMechE, Part A: Journal of Power and Energy, vol. 229, pp. 99–100, 2015. doi: 10.1177/0957650914554726
A. Pensini et al., “Economic analysis of using excess renewable electricity to displace heating fuels”, Applied Energy, vol. 131, pp. 530–543, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.04.111
Z. Wang and F. Li, “Developing trend of domestic electricity tariffs in Great Britain”, in 2011 2nd IEEE PES Int. Conf. ISGT Europe, Dec. 5–7, 2011, Manchester, UK. doi: 10.1109/ISGTEurope.2011.6162795
L. Hughes, “Meeting residential space heating demand with wind-generated electricity”, Renewable Energy, vol. 35, pp. 1765–1772, 2010. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2009.11.014
2013 Energy Projects – Co-winner 2: City of Summerside, Prince Edward Island: Wind Farm and Smart Grid Pilot Program [Online]. Available: http://www.fcm.ca/home/awards/fcm-sustainable-communities-awards/past-winners/2013-winners/2013-energy-projects-co-winner-2.htm
F.R. Kalhammer and T.R. Schneider, “Energy storage”, Ann. Rev. Energy, vol. 1, pp. 311–343, 1976. doi: 10.1146/annurev.eg.01.110176.001523
V. Hamidi et al., “Demand response in the UK’s domestic sector”, Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 79, pp. 1722–1726, 2009. doi: 10.1016/j.epsr.2009.07.013
V.D. Plachinda, “The actual question of using time-differential systems”, Jenergosberezhenie. Jenergetika. Jenergoaudit, no. 79, pp. 16–22, 2010 (in Ukrainian).
V.F. Nahodov et al., “Priority areas definition for improvement of differential electricity tariffs”, Eastern-European Journal of Enterprise Technologies, no. 6/1, pp. 24–32, 2015. doi: 10.15587/1729-4061.2015.55785 (in Russian).
V.F. Nahodov et al., “Impact assessment of demand change of consumers for electric power for unevenness of daily graphs of the energy system load”, Naukovi Visti NTUU KPI, no. 1, pp. 31–39, 2016. doi: 10.20535/1810-0546.2016.1.61736 (in Ukrainian).
V.F. Nahodov et al., “Analysis of existing designated areas of day-differentiated electricity tariffs”, in Proc. III Int. Conf. Energy Management: Current State and Development Trends, May 30–Juny 01, 2016, Kyiv, Ukraine, NTUU KPI, pp. 84–85 (in Ukrainian).
A.M. Syed, “Electric thermal storage option for nova scotia power customers: a case study of a typical electrically heated nova scotia house”, Energy Engineering, vol. 108, pp. 69–79, 2011. doi: 10.1080/01998595.2011.10412169
Victor Gandarillas, “Feasibility of small scale energy storage technologies in rural areas”, M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Strathclyde, United Kingdom, 2015. Available: http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/Documents/MSc_2015/Gandarillas.pdf
The Government’s Standard Assessment Procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings: 2012 ed. [Online]. Available: https://www.bre.co.uk/filelibrary/SAP/2012/SAP-2012_9-92.pdf
Economy 10 – One Easy Way to Save Money. How to Make the Most of Your Electricity Tariff [Online]. Available: http://www.albynhousing.org.uk/assets/0000/0709/Scottish_Hydro_Electric_Economy_10.pdf
ADL Dynamic Storage Heater [Online]. Available: http://www.elnur-global.com/dl-files/elnures/ft/en/f_adl_en.pdf
Large Industrial Tariff [Online]. Available: http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/about-us/electricity-rates-and-regulations/rates/ large-industrial-tariff.aspx
Interruptible Rider to the Large Industrial Tariff [Online]. Available: http://www.nspower.ca/en/home/about-us/electricity-rates-and-regulations/rates/interruptible-rider.aspx
Electricity Tariff Structure: The Spanish Case [Online]. Available: http://www2.aneel.gov.br/arquivos/PDF/El%20Sistema%20tarifario%20en%20Espa%C3%B1a%20(ingl%C3%A9s)%20-%20MARTI.pdf
Rate Tempo Always Win: What are the Tempo periods? [Online]. Available: https://www.endesaclientes.com/faqs/tempo.html
Economy 7 (E7) [Online]. Available: https://www.jec.co.uk/your-home/our-tariffs-and-rates/economy-7-(e7)/
Economy 10 Times [Online]. Available: http://www.electric-heatingcompany.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/ss-Economy-10-Times.pdf
Spain’s Iberdrola Installs 8 Million Smart Meters [Online]. Available: https://www.metering.com/news/iberdrola-8-million-smart-meters/
GOST Style Citations
Copyright (c) 2017 NTUU KPI