Dependence Between Microhardness and Magnetic Resistance of Electrodeposited Fe-Cr and Fe-Ni Alloys

Євген Валерійович Колесник, Олександр Павлович Клименко, Анатолій Миколайович Дудка


Background. For thin metal coatings indirect determination of mechanical properties is an actual task. Its accomplishing requires establishing the dependencies between different groups of coatings properties.

Objective. The aim of research is identification of the dependence between characteristics of mechanical and magnetic properties of thin electrodeposited coatings, particularly – the iron-based alloys.

Methods. 50 mm thick Fe-Cr and Fe-Ni alloys obtained at the temperature of 55 °C and the cathode current density of 10 A/dm2 from the sulphate electrolytes, containing iron ions (80 g/l) and chromium or nickel ions (from 1 to 40 g/l), have been investigated with definition of microhardness, magnetic resistance, surface morphology, phase composition and preferred crystal orientations.

Results. The dependencies of microhardness and magnetic resistance of the Fe-Cr and Fe-Ni alloys on the concentration of the alloying elements in the electrolyte have common non-linear nature and correlate well with the results of precise measurement of the spacing of crystal lattice of the alloys. At that, the content of chromium and nickel in the coatings is not significant impact factor on the properties.

Conclusions. The found identical character of microhardness change and magnetic resistance of the alloys indicates significant influence of residual macrostrain on mechanical and magnetic properties of Fe-Cr and Fe-Ni alloys. The reason for non-linear changes in macrostrain in the investigated alloys are the features of structure formation, which can be observed in the formation of surface morphology and preferred crystal orientations.


Electrodeposited coatings; Alloy; Fe-Cr; Fe-Ni; Microhardness; Magnetic resistance; Macrostrain; Surface morphology; Preferred crystal orientations


W.H. Safranek, The Properties of Electrodeposited Metals and Alloy. Orlando: American Electroplaters & Surface Finishers Society, 1986, 550 p.

L. Tushinsky et al., Coated Metal Structure and Properties of Metal-Coating Compositions. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2002, 446 p.

Y.D. Gamburg and G. Zangari, Theory and Practice of Metal Electrodeposition. New York: Springer, 2011, 378 p.

J.W. Dini, Electrodeposition: the Materials Science of Coatings and Substrates. Westwood: Noyes Publications, 1993, 367 p.

I.M. Kovenskiy and V.V. Povetkin, Metals Science of Coatings. Moscow, Russia: Intermet Engineering, 1999, 296 p. (in Russian).

J. Pelle, Mechanical Properties of Materials (Solid mechanics and its applications). New York: Springer, 2013, 634 p.

N.E. Dowling, Mechanical Behavior of Materials. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2012, 960 p.

S.M. Zolotorevskiy, Mechanical Properties of Metals. Moscow, Russia: Metallurgiya, 1983, 352 p. (in Russian).

S.S. Gorelik et al., Roentgenography and Electron-Optical Analysis. Moscow, Russia: MISIS, 2002, 358 p. (in Russian).

Yu.I. Golovin, “Nanoindentation and mechanical properties of solids in submicrovolumes, thin near-surface layers and films (review)”, Fizika Tverdogo Tela, no. 12, pp. 2113–2142, 2008 (in Russian).

Yu.I. Golovin, “Investigation of mechanical properties of materials by the method of nanoindentation (review)”, Zavodskaya Laboratoriya. Diagnostika Materialov, no. 2, pp. 37–52, 2009 (in Russian).

Ie.V. Kolesnyk and M.T. Velychko, “Features of structure formation of electrodeposited Fe-Cr coatings”, Metaloznavstvo ta Termichna Obrobka Metaliv, no. 4, pp. 64–68, 2013 (in Russian).

F. Wang and T. Watanabe, “Preparation and characterization of the electrodeposited Fe-Cr alloy film”, Mat. Sci. Eng. A, no. 1-2, pp. 183–190, 2003.

Ie.V. Kolesnyk, “Features of structure formation of electrodeposited alloys Fe-Ni”, Sci. Bull. Nat. Mining Univ., no 5, pp. 62–66, 2013 (in Russian).

Ie. Kolesnyk, “Influence of metal ions in iron-plating solution on structure formation of electrodeposited iron-based coatings”, Chimia, no. 7-8, p. 575, 2013.

E.D. Pleshka, “Iron coatings from multicomponent methyl sulfate chloride electrolyte”, Surf. Eng. Appl. Electrochem., no. 4, pp. 264–270, 2008.

V.A. Likhachev, “Restoration of depreciated components by the method of cold iron-plating”, Galvanotekhnika i Obrabotka Poverkhnosti, no. 1, pp. 14–18, 2006 (in Russian).

Yu.N. Petrov et al., Electrolytic Deposition of Iron. Chisinau: Shtiintsa, 1990 (in Russian).

J.L. Mccrea et al., “Properties and applications for electrodeposited nanocrystalline Fe-Ni alloys”, Rev. Adv. Mater. Sci., no. 1, pp. 252–258, 2003.

H. Nakano et al., “Mechanism of anomalous type electrodeposition of Fe-Ni alloys from sulfate solutions”, Mater. Trans., no. 11, pp. 3130–3135, 2004.

N.N. Zablodskiy et al., “Influence of mechanical strain on magnetic and electrical properties of hollow ferromagnetic rotor of polifunctional electromechanical transducer”, Visnyk NTU “KhPI”, no. 3, pp. 61–66, 2012 (in Russian).

E.S. Gorkunov et al., “Influence of elastic strain by tension (compression), torsion and internal pressure on magnetic characteristics of pipeline steel”, Sci. Proc. NTSM, no. 1, pp. 12–15, 2012 (in Russian).

V.V. Miroshnikov and O.P. Zavalniuk, “Investigation of a possibility for control of elastic strain by the value of reisdual magnetization of metal”, Visnyk NTU “KhPI”, no. 34, pp. 12–17, 2013 (in Russian).

V.A. Lubarda, “On the effective lattice parameter of binary alloys”, Mech. Mater., no. 1-2, pp. 53–68, 2003.

E.A. Mamontov et al., “Spherulites as a form of growth of electrolytic deposits”, Elektrokhimiya, no. 9, pp. 1211–1214, 1985 (in Russian).

A.A. Vikarchuk, “Classification of structures being formed during electrocrystallization of metals with face-centered cubic lattice”, Elektrokhimiya, no. 7, pp. 974–982, 1992 (in Russian).

GOST Style Citations

  1. Safranek W.H. The properties of electrodeposited metals and alloys. – Orlando: American Electroplaters & Surface Finishers Society, 1986. – 550 p.

  2. Coated metal structure and properties of metal-coating compositions / L. Tushinsky, I. Kovensky, A. Plokhov et al. – Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2002. – 446 p.

  3. Gamburg Y.D., Zangari G. Theory and practice of metal electrodeposition. – New York: Springer, 2011. – 378 p.

  4. Dini J.W. Electrodeposition: the materials science of coatings and substrates. – Westwood: Noyes Publications, 1993. – 367 p.

  5. Ковенский И.М., Поветкин В.В. Металловедение покрытий. – М.: Интермет инжиниринг, 1999. – 296 с.

  6. Pelleg J. Mechanical properties of materials (Solid mechanics and its applications). – New York: Springer, 2013. – 634 p.

  7. Dowling N.E. Mechanical behavior of materials. – New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 2012. – 960 p.

  8. Золоторевский С.М. Механические свойства металлов. – М.: Металлургия, 1983. – 352 с.

  9. Горелик С.С., Скаков Ю.А., Расторгуев Л.Н. Рентгенографический и электронно-оптический анализ. – М.: МИСИС, 2002. – 358 с.

  10. Головин Ю.И. Наноиндентирование и механические свойства твердых тел в субмикрообъемах, тонких приповерхностных слоях и пленках (обзор) // Физика твердого тела. – 2008. – № 12. – С. 2113–2142.

  11. Головин Ю.И. Исследование механических свойств материалов методом наноиндентирования (обзор) // Заводская лаборатория. Диагностика материалов. – 2009. – № 2. – С. 37–52.

  12. Колесник Е.В., Величко М.Т. Особенности формирования структуры электроосажденных Fe-Cr покрытий // Металознавство та термічна обробка металів. – 2013. – № 4. – С. 64–68.

  13. Wang F., Watanabe T. Preparation and characterization of the electrodeposited Fe-Cr alloy film // Materials Sci. Eng. A. – 2003. – № 1-2. – P. 183–190.

  14. Колесник Е.В. Особенности структурообразования электроосажденных сплавов Fe-Ni // Науковий вісник Нац. гірничого ун-ту. – 2013. – № 5. – С. 62–66.

  15. Kolesnyk Ie. Influence of metal ions in iron-plating solution on structure formation of electrodeposited iron-based coatings // Chimia. – 2013. – № 7-8. – P. 575.

  16. Pleshka E.D. Iron coatings from multicomponent methyl sulfate chloride electrolyte // Surface Eng. Appl. Electrochem. – 2008. – № 4. – P. 264–270.

  17. Лихачев В.А. Восстановление изношенных деталей методом холодного железнения // Гальванотехника и обработка поверхности. – 2006. – № 1. – С. 14–18.

  18. Электролитическое осаждение железа / Ю.Н. Петров, Г.В. Гурьянов, Ж.И. Бобанова и др. – Кишинев: Штиинца, 1990. – 195 с.

  19. Properties and applications for electrodeposited nanocrystalline Fe-Ni alloys / J.L. Mccrea, G. Palumbo, G.D. Hibbard, U. Erb // Rev. Adv. Mat. Scie. – 2003. – № 1. – P. 252–258.

  20. Mechanism of Anomalous Type Electrodeposition of Fe-Ni Alloys from Sulfate Solutions / H. Nakano, M. Matsuno, S. Oue et al. // Materials Transactions. – 2004. – № 11. – P. 3130–3135.

  21. Заблодский Н.Н., Плюгин В.Е., Лукьянов Н.В. Влияние механических напряжений на магнитные и электрические свойства полого ферромагнитного ротора полифункционального электромеханического преобразователя // Вісник НТУ “ХПІ”. – 2012. – № 3. – С. 61–66.

  22. Влияние упругих деформаций на магнитные характеристики трубной стали 09Г2С / Э.С. Горкунов, А.Н. Мушников, С.М. Задворкин, Е.И. Якушенко // Научни известия на НТСМ. – 2012. – № 1. – С. 12–15.

  23. Мирошников В.В., Завальнюк О.П. Исследование возможности контроля упругих напряжений по величине остаточной намагниченности металла // Вісник НТУ “ХПІ”. – 2013. – № 34. – С. 12–17.

  24. Lubarda V.A. On the effective lattice parameter of binary alloys // Mech. Mater. – 2003. – № 1-2. – P. 53–68.

  25. Мамонтов Е.А., Курбатова Л.А., Воленко А.П. Сферолиты как форма роста электролитических осадков // Электрохимия. – 1985. – № 9. – С. 1211–1214.

  26. Викарчук A.A. Классификация структур, формирующихся при электрокристаллизации металлов с гранецентрированной кубической решеткой // Электрохимия. – 1992. – № 7. – С. 974–982.



  • There are currently no refbacks.