A Pooled Analysis of Heat-Resistant Cr-Al Steels





Carbon, Rare earth metals, Cr-Al steel, Structure, Heat resistance


Background. Under the conditions of rapid heating-cooling, nonuniform temperature fields occur in the volume of the part that contribute to the accumulation of thermal stresses. Such stresses may exceed the yield point of the alloy and destroy part’s material. The form of parts’ destruction depends on the properties of metal and operating conditions. A typical form of destruction is cracking. It was determined by the analysis of operation of thermal-resistant parts that the choice of alloy with high oxidation resistance is necessary, but not enough to provide the specified life of thermal-resistant items, since in thermal cycling conditions heat resistance of metal begins to appear primarily.

Objective. The aim of the work is to establish the effect of carbon and rare earth metals on heat resistance of thermal-resistant Cr-Al steels for work in extreme conditions and the study of the kinetics and mechanism of destruction of metal.

Methods. Samples of90 mm in length and12 mm in diameter were subjected to heat treatment in a box furnace to 1100 °C, and chilled under running water. Assessment of heat resistance was done with the appearance of thermal fatigue cracks on the side surface or at their ends. Phase composition and structure were investigated by modern X-ray diffraction and metallographic methods.

Results. The mechanism and kinetics of the destruction of cast metal under conditions of thermal cycles were determined. The selection of Cr-Al steel for work under extreme conditions should be made with regard to its mechanical, physical, physico-chemical and technological properties, as well as the design features of a particular casting.

Conclusions. To achieve high heat resistance in the conditions of high variable temperatures Cr-Al steel should comprise 25–30 % of Cr, 1.0–3.0 % of aluminum, 0.3–0.6 % of titanium, 0.2–0.4 % of C and 0 15–0.40 % of rare earth metals.

Author Biographies

Михайло Михайлович Ямшинський, NTUU "Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute"

Mykhailo M. Yamshinskij,

doctor of science, Department of foundry of ferrous and nonferrous metals

Григорій Єгорович Федоров, NTUU "Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute"

Grigoriy E.  Fedorov,

doctor of science, Department of foundry of ferrous and nonferrous metals


V.A. Ljutyj, “Cr-Al steel castings for operating at variable temperatures up to 1200 °C”, Ph.D. dissertation, Dept. Techic. Eng. of NTUU KPI, Kyiv, 1969 (in Russian).

Kookutla Ramesh, “An experimental study on effect of aluminum oxide on strength and corrosion resistance”, Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol., vol. 3, iss. 11, pp. 269–271, 2014.

Ju.F. Balandin, Thermal Fatigue of Metals. Leningrad, USSR: Sudostroenie, 1965 (in Russian).

Je. Gudremon, Special Steels, vol. 1, 2nd ed. Moscow, USSR: Metallurgija, 1966 (in Russian).

I.A. Vladimirov, Temperature Resistant Superalloys. Moscow, USSR: Oborongiz, 1962 (in Russian).

K.T. Sunny et al., “Implementation of stainless steel buffer layer for reducing crack propagation on regulating valve disc”, Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol., vol. 4, iss. 04, рр. 414–417, 2015.

A.A. Abdel- Khalek, et al., “Kinetics of Oxidation of Novel Ternary Complexes of Chromium Involving or titanium and carbon”, Int. J. Eng. Res. Technol., vol. 4, iss. 11, pр. 370–377, 2015.

V.P. Gavriljuk and E.A. Markovskij, Cast Iron Chromium Alloys. Kyiv, Ukraine: Processy lit'ja pri uchastii MP “Informlit'e”, 2001 (in Russian).

M.M. Jamshinskij et al., Thermal resistance of heat-resistant steels for use in extreme conditions”, Vіsnyk Donbas'koї Derzhavnoї Mashinobudіvnoї Akademії, no. 3 (36), pp. 33–37, 2015 (in Ukrainian).

M.M. Jamshinskij and G.E. Fedorov, “Scale resistance Cr-Al steel depending on the contents of chromium and aluminum”, Vіsnik Donbas'koї Derzhavnoї Mashinobudіvnoї Akademії, no. 1 (37), pp. 101–110, 2016 (in Ukrainian).

M.V. Pridancev, The Effect of Impurities and Rare Earth Metals on Properties of the Alloys. Moscow, USSR: Metallurgizdat, 1962 (in Russian).

G.S. Pisarenko and N.S. Mozharovskij, Equations and Boundary Value Problems of Ductility and Creep. Kyiv, USSR: Naukova Dumka, 1981 (in Russian).

P. Sh'jumon, Diffusion in Solids. Moscow, USSR: Metallurgija, 1966 (in Russian).

L.B. Gecov, Creep and Long-Term Strength of Metallic Materials. Moscow, Russia: Mashinostroenie, 2005 (in Russian).

M.S. Kulik et al., The study results of thermal cyclic durability of heat resistant material turbine engines”, Naukoєmnі Tehnologії, no. 4, pp. 5–13, 2010 (in Ukrainian).